The excavation of the Jacksonville “Blue China” wreck yielded an assortment of toilet wares, the necessities of a previous era lacking the conveniences of indoor plumbing. The collection includes five chamber pots made of sturdy white ironstone china. None of the pieces bear identifiable tally or maker’s marks. None of the pieces bear identifiable tally or maker’s marks.
Also known as English porcelain, opaque porcelain, stone china, and white granite, ironstone china was first introduced by Staffordshire potters in the early 19th century, in large part to emulate the popular Chinese-style porcelain dinner services; yet without the cost of these finer wares and with the added advantage of great strength and durability. William Turner of the Lane End potteries at Longton, Stoke-on-Trent, is said to have achieved the first successful manufacture of stone china and obtained a patent in 1800. Others soon followed, including Josiah Spode’s stone china introduced c. 1813, who also called his bluish gray wares ‘new stone’, as well as the stone china produced by John Davenport’s Longport pottery c. 1815 or before. However, the more common term ‘ironstone’ applied to these hard white stonewares derived from the products that Charles James Mason marketed as ‘Mason’s Patent Ironstone China’, from 1813.
Evidence suggests that the early ironstone chinas produced by these potters were originally intended to replace the Chinese porcelain that the British East India Company stopped importing in 1791. By 1799 a customs duty of over 100% was placed on the importation of Chinese porcelain into England, providing the incentive and opportunity to successfully introduce the cheaper stonewares, including ‘Mason’s Patent Ironstone China’. Most of the English stone china and the ironstone-type wares manufactured prior to the 1830s in fact were heavily decorated, often in a Chinese style and were produced to imitate the popular Chinese export-market porcelains in both design and shape.
The later ironstone and granite wares introduced after 1830 were typically undecorated utilitarian vessels mass produced by a host of Staffordshire manufacturers in large part for the export markets. Invoices of earthenware shipped to Philadelphia show that by the early 1840s America had started receiving steady shipments of undecorated ironstone china and ‘white granite.’ English potters had discovered that the inhabitants of the ‘colonies’ greatly preferred this modestly priced, plain and durable china to more expensive, exotic wares. The name ironstone china, in particular, was especially fitting because it was immediately identifiable, implied high quality, and yet was dense, hard and very durable. Also accounting for ironstone china’s mass appeal was its physical similarity to white porcelain, yet economically it undercut the popular white French porcelains produced by Haviland and other Limoges and Paris maker. White granite, in effect, was a cheap substitute for French china.